Characterization and Separation of Lignin from Kraft Black Liquor with Different Alcohols
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The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of lignin obtained from black liquors of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European aspen (Populus tremula L.) woods cooked by Kraft method. In the study, the cooking process was carried out according to parameters such as: 1/4 of wood/liquor ratio, cooking temperature at (170±2) °C, and cooking time of 90 min. After the cooking process, the black liquor was taken to a beaker from the digester, and lignin was recovered in different ways from the black liquor with methyl alcohol (MeOH) and ethyl alcohol (EtOH). The material properties of the recovered lignin were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Commercial lignin (cml-lignin) was used to compare the properties of lignin obtained from black liquor. SEM images showed that the particle sizes of lignin obtained with EtOH and MeOH were similar. In FT-IR, it was detected that the recovered lignin types have similar functional groups, while some differences were observed in intensities of the peaks. XRD results revealed that all lignin types were found to have a similar structure with the cml-lignin, and that alcohol types used during the recovery process of lignin do not have an important effect on the structural properties of lignin. The TGA results indicated that the thermal stability of recovered lignin has better thermal stability than cml-lignin. The results showed that the recovered lignin was similar to commercial lignin and that it can be recovered from the liquor leftover from Kraft pulping by the method described and used in industry.